Solar Discs


Sun symbology can be found in the art of most civilizations. The Sun is the Symbol of Creation, the Source of Light, the Eye; each soul is a spark of light created by this Source.


Egypt

Many of the Egyptian Gods wore solar discs.



Nut - Egyptian Solar Disc

On the Southern section of this image - Nut has ten solar disks running along her body, as well as one at her mouth and another one at the birth canal between her legs painted with the image of Khepri (the god of coming into being). No disks are depicted on the northern facing Nut because the sun is always seen to traverse the southern part of the sky in Egypt.



Nut and Geb



Ra



Isis



Solar disc relief - Akhenaten worshipping the Sun God - Aton


The Great Aten The God and Disk of the Sun


Symbol of Aton

In connection with the Sun-gods of Egypt and with their various forms which were worshipped in that country must be considered the meager facts which we possess concerning Aten, who appears to have represented both the god or spirit of the sun, and the solar disk itself.

The origin of this god is wholly obscure, and nearly all that is known about him under the Middle Empire is that he was a small provincial form of the Sun-god which was worshipped in one little town in the neighborhood of Heliopolis, and it is possible that a temple was built in his honor, in Heliopolis itself.

It is idle to attempt to describe the attributes which were orginally ascribed to him under the Middle or Early Empire, because the texts which were written before the XXIIIrd Dynasty give us no information on the subject.

Under the XVIIIth Dynasty, and especially during the reigns of Amen-Ra-Heru-khuti, Horus, etc., but it does not follow that they orginally belonged to him. In the Theban Recesion of the Book of the Dead, which is based upon Heliopolitan, we find Aten mentioned by the deceased thus : -

These passages show that Aten, at the time when the hymns from which they are taken were composed, was regarded as the material body of the sun wherein dwelt the god Ra, and that he represented merely the solar disk and was visible emblem of the great Sun-god.

In later times, coming to protection afforded to him by Amen-hetep III, the great warrior and hunter of the XVIII Dynasty, other views were promulgated concerning Aten, and he became the cause of one the greatest religious and social revolutions which ever convulsed Egypt.

After the expulsion of Hyksos, Amen, the local god of Thebes, as the god of the victorious princess of that city, became the head of the company of the gods of Egypt, and the early kings of the XVIIIth Dynasty endowed his shrine with possessions, and gave gifts to his priesthood with a lavish hand.

In spite of this however, some of these kings maintained an affection for the forms of the Sun-god which were worshipped at Heliopolis, and Thothmes IV, it will be remembered, dug out the Sphinx from the sand which had buried him and his temple, and restored the worship of Ra-Harmachis.

He was not the only monarch who viewed with disamy the great and growing power of the priests of Amen-Ra, the "king of the gods" at Thebes.

Amen-hetep III, the son of Thothmes IV, held the same views as his father in this respect, and he was, apparently, urged to give effect to them by his wife Thi, the daughter of Iuaa and Thuau, who was a foreigner and who was in no way connected with the royal house of Egypt.

Having married this lady, he gave her as dowry the frontier city of Tcharu, and her natural ability, coupled with the favor of her husband, made her chief of all the royal wives, and a great power in the affairs of the government of the country.

It has been thought by some that she was a native of the country near Heliopolis, and it is possible that she herself was a votary of Aten, but be that as it may, she appears to have supported the king in his determation to encourage the worship of the god.

At an early period in his reign he built one at Thebes, quite close to the great sanctuary of Amen-Ra, the priests of whom were, of course, powerless to resist the will of such an active and able king.

Soon after his marriage with Thi, Amen-hetep III, dug, in his wife's city of Tcharu, a lake, which was about 6000 feet long by 1000 feet broad.

On the day of the festival when the water was allowed to flow into it, he sailed over it in a boat called "Aten-neferu, i.e., the "Beauties of Aten ;" the name of the boat is a clear proof of his devotion to the god Aten. Amen-hetep IV, the son of Amen-hetep III. by the foreign lady Thi, not only held the religious views of his father, but held them very strongly.

His life shows that he must have been from his youth of an adherent of the worship of Aten; it is supposed, and with much probability, that the intensity of his love for Aten and his hatred for Amen-Ra were due to his mother's influence.

Amen-hetep IV succeeded his father without difficulty, even though his mother was not a member of the royal family of Egypt, and for the first few years of his reign he followed the example of the earlier kings of his dynasty, and lived at Thebes, where he no doubt ruled according to his mothers wishes.

He offered up sacrifices to Amen-Ra at the appointed seasons, an was, outwardly at least, a loyal servent of this god, whose name formed a part of his name as "son of the Sun." We may note in passing, that he adopted on his accession to the throne the title "High-priest of Ra-Heru-khuti, the exalted one of the horizon, in his "name of Shu who is in Aten," which is clear proof that he was not only a worshiper of Ra-Harmachis, another of the forms of the Sun-god Heliopolis, but also that he endorsed the views and held the opions of the old College of Priests at Heliopolis, which assigned the disk {Aten} to him for a dwelling-place.

Amen-hetep's titles as lord of the shrines of the cities of Nekhebet and Uatchet, and as the Horus of gold also prove his devotion to a Sun-god of Heliopolis. During the early years of his reign at Thebes he built a massive Benhen, in honor of Ra-Harmachis at Thebes, and it is probable that he took the opportunity of restoring or enlarging the temple of Aten which had been built by his father.

At the same time we find that he worshipped both Amen and Aten, the former in his official position as king, and the latter in his private capacity. It was, however, impossible for the priests of Amen -Ra to tolerate the presence of the new god Aten and his worship in Thebes, and the relations between the king and that powerful body soon became strained.

On the one hand the king asserted the superiority of Aten over every god, and on the other the priests declared that Amen-Ra was the king of the gods.

As, however, Amen-Ra was the center of the social life of Thebes, and his priests and their relatives included in their number the best and greatest families of the capitol city, it came to pass that the king found himself at the worship of Aten wholly supported by the great mass of its population, whose sympathies were with the old religion of Thebes, and by those who gained their living in connection with the worship of Amen-Ra.

The king soon realized that residence in Thebes was becoming impossible , and the fifth year of his reign he began to build a new capitol on the east bank of the Nile, near a place which is marked to-day by the Arab villages of Haggi Kandil and Tell el-Amarna ; he planned that it should include a great temple to Aten, a palace for the king, and houses for those who were attached to the worship of Aten and were prepared to follow their king there.

While the new capitol was in the process of building the dispute between the king and the priests of Amen-Ra became more severe, and matters were much aggravated by Amenhetep IV.

At length the king left Thebes an took up his abode in his new capitol, which he called "Khut-Aten," i.e., "Hotizon of Aten," and as a sign of the entire severance of his connection with traditions of his house in respect of Amen-Ra he discarded his name "Amen-hetep" and called himself Khut-Aten i.e., "Glory of Aten," or, "Spirit of Aten."

At the time he changed his Horus name of "Exalted One of the double plumes" to "Mighty Bull, beloved of Aten" {or, lover of Aten}, and he adopted as lord of the shrines of Nekhebet and Uatchet the title of "Mighty one of sovereignity in Khut-Aten," and as the Horus of gold he styled himself, "Exalter of the name Aten."




Inca

The Golden Solar Disc of Lake Titicaca was used in the capacity of a cosmic computer that received light information directly from the Universal Mind Source, Wiracocha, at the center of the galaxy.

At dawn on the 'Day of Cusco' and the Inti Raymi honors the Inca and his people the god of the Sun in the Qorikancha or the Temple of the Sun where the Santa Domingo was built. Seen from the Avenida del Sol is the festival starting and the four provinces of the Incas, the four Suyus as part of Tawantinsuyu come together to give thanks to the Sun. On top of the beautiful perfectly shaped granite wall before the Santa Domingo makes the Inca his speech.

Standing behind the Inca is the enormous golden disc we only know from legends. According to one of these legends rests the 'Golden Sun Disc of Mu' at the bottom of the Lake Titicaca.

Underneath the Inca, at the granite wall of the remains of Temple of the Sun stand the imperial court, the Virgins of the Sun and at his right hand side the high priest and the subordinated priests. All of them are considered of being part of the nobility and most of them have noble blood. On the square below are the representatives of the four Suyus listening to the powerful Quechua words of the Sapa Inca.

In the church and monastery of the Santa Domingo can the remains of the impressive Temple of the Sun still be seen. Temples are built to honor the elements of nature as lighting, wind, the Sun (Inti), the Moon (Quilla), etc.

After the initiation at this most sacred temple (once considered as the very center of Tawantinsuyu from where the four provinces started) moves the procession on the same route they took 600 years ago to the fortress of Sacsayhuam‡n. The Inca is carried in a replica of his famous golden throne. When the conquistador Francisco Pizarro won the battle on the Plaza de Armas of Cajamarca in 1533, it is said he claimed the throne as his personal trophy. Its weight was 80kg of pure gold.

Ok, back to Cusco in the year 1998. Next to the Inca walks the high priest in deep meditation. This highest spiritual representative in the empire had the same consideration as his brother the Inca and maybe higher. For many state affairs asked the Inca advice to the high priest. In the background of the picture stands the proud Catedr‡l as a pearl on the Plaza de Armas.


"Geometrizing" of the Tiahuanacian Solar Cycle, may be a particularly useful line of enquiry into many other ancient prehistoric cultures.




Japan

This is the Japanese Emperor's flag - 1876 - The Sun Disc




India

The worship of the sun is universal. To the Indians, the sun was the ancient ancestor of the human race and the distributor of wealth. The sun god's iconographic aspects were established by the Vedic period (ca. 1500 -1000 B.C.), and several are depicted in this stela of the god in human form. Among them are solar discs represented by two blooming lotuses flanking the god's head.




Wales

The Banc Ty'nddol sun-disc is a small, decorated, gold ornament discovered at Cwmystwyth, Ceredigion, Wales. It most likely was part of a funerary garment and is more than 4,000 years old, which makes it the earliest gold artifact found in Wales. It was discovered on October 16, 2002 by a team of archaeologists who were investigating the site of Roman and Medieval lead smelting hearths below the Bronze Age copper mine on Copa Hill. The area around Cwmystwyth, has been mined for lead and copper for more than 4,000 years, almost since the beginning of metalworking in the British Isles.




Persia

The winged figure has been interpreted as either a winged geni, or as some form of idealized portrait of Cyrus the Great, possibly representing the King's 'Fortune'. Some interpretation such as this seems inevitable, given that the figure wears a crown and Elamite royal robe. 'Resting on the long twisted horns of the Abyssinian ram (Ovis longipes palaeo-egyptiacus), between two opposed uraei of the headress consists of three bunches of reeds, each surmounted by a solar disc and each set against a background of osterich feathers. Three solar discs with concentric circles mark the bottom of the reed bundles.


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