Philosophy


Philosophy is concerned with increasing our understanding of the world and how we should live in it. It consists in making serious and sustained attempts to reach the truth or, where truth is not an appropriate goal, to arrive at the most reasonable position on important issues.

Philosophy is a field of study that includes diverse subfields such as aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, and metaphysics, in which people ask questions such as whether God exists, what is the nature of reality, whether knowledge is possible, and what makes actions right or wrong. The fundamental method of philosophy is the use of reasoning to evaluate arguments concerning these questions. However, the exact scope and methodology of philosophy is not rigid. What counts as philosophy is itself debated, and it varies across philosophical traditions.

The term philosophy comes from the Greek word (philo-sophia), which means "love of wisdom" or less commonly "friend of wisdom". Many ancient Greek philosophers distinguished the desire for wisdom from desires for material things, vices, and the satisfaction of bodily desires.

The definition of wisdom for many ancient Greeks would have been about virtue and the desire for knowledge and not false opinions. However, the term is notoriously difficult to define today (definition of philosophy) because of the diverse range of ideas that have been labeled as philosophy.

The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy defines it as the study of "the most fundamental and general concepts and principles involved in thought, action, and reality". The Penguin Encyclopedia says that philosophy differs from science in that philosophy's questions cannot be answered empirically, and from religion in that philosophy allows no place for faith or revelation. However, these points are called into question by the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, which states: "the late 20th-century... prefers to see philosophical reflection as continuous with the best practice of any field of intellectual enquiry." Indeed, many of the speculations of early philosophers in the field of natural philosophy eventually formed the basis for modern scientific explanations on a variety of subjects.

Informally, a "philosophy" may refer to a general world view or to a specific ethic or belief.

Philosophy Wikipedia

Other Related Files from Wikipedia

African Philosophy

Analytic Philosophy

Applied Philosophy

Chinese Philosophy

Eastern Philosophy

Existentialism

History of Philosophy

History of Western Philosophy

Indian Philosophy - Hindu

Iranian Philosophy

List of Philosophers

Metaphysics and Epistemology

Medieval Philosophy

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy




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