Fossil Penguins



Palaeospheniscus patagonicus is the type species of the penguin genus Palaeospheniscus, which is known from fossils. It stood about 6575 cm high in life, roughly the size of an African Penguin. This species is known from several dozen bones, found in Early Miocene strata of the Patagonian Molasse Formation. The specimens from known localities were collected near Trelew and Gaiman in Chubut Province, Argentina. Giant Penguins Once Swam the Southern Oceans. Read more ...




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Giant Prehistoric Penguins Evolved During the Dinosaur Age   Live Science - February 28, 2017
Penguins that walked the Earth 61 million years ago might have been giants, growing to nearly 5 feet tall, according to the oldest penguin fossils unearthed to date. Perhaps even more impressive, these oversize waddlers might have evolved alongside dinosaurs, the researchers report in a new study. Penguins are flightless, but they can swim at speeds of up to 22 mph (35 km/h). The biggest living penguin, the emperor penguin, can grow to be about 3.9 feet (1.2 meters) tall, but previously unearthed fossils revealed that extinct penguins could get as large as 5.4 feet (1.65 m) tall. Although penguins are flightless, their anatomy suggests that their ancestors could fly, just as other modern birds can. For example, some wing bones in living penguins are fused together in the same way as those in flying birds, said study co-author Paul Scofield, a paleontologist at the Canterbury Museum in Christchurch, New Zealand. In addition,modern penguins have air sacs in their bodies just as flying birds do, although in flying birds, these air sacs help reduce weight for flight, whereas in penguins, they help the birds control their buoyancy




Extinct Penguin Was Tall Enough to Play in the NBA   Discovery - August 6, 2014

A penguin that lived more than 35 million years ago was the largest ever, and would stand twice as tall as today's largest penguin, according to new fossil evidence. Palaeeudyptes klekowskii would have stood about 6 feet 6 inches tall and weighed around 250 pounds, according to analysis of new bones found on Seymour Island in Antarctica by an Argentinian museum researcher. The newly discovered bones -- a partial wing and an ankle-and-foot-bone structure called the tarsometatarsus -- gave Carolina Acosta Hospitaleche, from the La Plata Museum in Argentina, a way to derive the height of the long-lost penguin giant.




Big Bird: Fossils of World's Tallest Penguin Discovered   Live Science - February 27, 2012
New Zealand was once home to the tallest penguin species ever known - a lanky bird that stood as high as 4.2 feet (1.3 meters). The penguin, dubbed Kairuku grebneffi, lived about 27 million years ago in a penguin paradise. More of New Zealand was underwater at the time, with only today's mountaintops emerging from the sea. That made for excellent coastal nesting for a number of penguin species




Ancient giant penguin unearthed in Peru   BBC - October 1, 2010

The fossil of a giant penguin that lived 36 million years ago has been discovered in Peru. Scientists say the find shows that key features of the plumage were present quite early on in penguin evolution. The animal's feathers were brown and grey, distinct from the black "tuxedo" look of modern penguins. It was about 1.5m (5ft) tall and nearly twice as heavy as an Emperor Penguin, the largest living species. The bird, named Inkayacu paracasensis, or Water King, waddled the Earth during the late Eocene period. It had a long, straight beak, much longer than that of its modern relatives. The fossil was found in Reserva Nacional de Paracas in Peru. The scientists nicknamed the penguin "Pedro" - after a scaly character in a Colombian TV series. One of the highlights of the study was the presence of well-preserved feathers and scales.




Giant Penguins Once Roamed Peru Desert, Fossils Show National Geographic - June 25, 2007
Penguins about the size of humans roamed South America some 35 million years ago, and they didn't need ice to survive. That's the result of a new study by North Carolina State University paleontologist Julia Clarke and her colleagues. The discovery pushes the date of penguin migration to equatorial regions back more than 30 million years, to one of the warmest periods of the last 65 million years. The find also casts doubt on climate as the main factor in penguins' choice of habitat through history.




Giant Prehistoric Penguins Found National Geographic - June 25, 2007

A fossil skull recently uncovered in Peru reveals that penguins about the size of people roamed the country's Atacama Desert more than 30 million years ago. The newly described species, Icadyptes salasi, is shown above next to a skull of the only modern penguin living in Peru, Spheniscus humboldti. A new study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences describes the species, which stood about 4.5 feet (1.5 meters) tall and sported a foot-long (0.3-meter-long) beak. The study also describes a smaller ancient penguin species found in the same region. Despite I. salasi's unusual height, its beak is disproportionately large, said lead study author Julia Clarke. Other clues on the beakincluding texturing on the bone and a horny sheathsuggest the animal employed a feeding style akin to spear fishing.




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