Multiverse Theory of Cosmology

The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists and can exist: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes. A multiverse has been envisaged within the multi-dimensional extension of string theory or M-theory.

The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationships among the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiple universes have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", "alternative timelines", and "dimensional planes," among others. The term 'multiverse' was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James in a different context.

The multiverse hypothesis is a source of disagreement within the physics community. Physicists disagree about whether the multiverse exists, and whether the multiverse is a proper subject of scientific inquiry. Supporters of one of the multiverse hypotheses include Stephen Hawking, Steven Weinberg, Brian Greene, Max Tegmark, and Alex Vilenkin. Read more ...

In contrast, critics such as David Gross, Paul Steinhardt, and Paul Davies have argued that the multiverse question is philosophical rather than scientific, or even that the multiverse hypothesis is harmful or pseudoscientific.

The Multiverse in Linear Time

In 1949, on the occasion of Einstein's 70th birthday, Kurt Godel
presented him with a mathematical proof of the nonexistence of time.
Nature, it appears, is governed by eternal laws that stand outside time.

Time is part of the illusion of physical reality.

M.C. Escher Quotes

As far as I know, there is no proof whatever of the existence of an
objective reality apart from our senses, and I do not see why we
should accept the outside world as such solely by virtue of our senses.

Bridges and Strings - Things That Connect Universes

Reality is a consciousness hologram with endless possibilities.

The Holographic Universe

The Physical Universe

In the News ...

The universe could possibly have more dimensions. Here's how

String theory is a purported theory of everything that physicists hope will one day explain ... everything. All the forces, all the particles, all the constants, all the things under a single theoretical roof, where everything that we see is the result of tiny, vibrating strings. Theorists have been working on the idea since the 1960s, and one of the first things they realized is that for the theory to work, there have to be more dimensions than the four we're used to.

The weirdest idea in quantum physics is catching on: There may be endless worlds with countless versions of you.   NBC - October 22, 2019
According to an increasingly popular analysis of quantum mechanics known as the Many Worlds Interpretation. every fundamental event that has multiple possible outcomes whether itŐs a particle of light hitting Mars or a molecule in the flame bouncing off your teapot - splits the world into alternate realities. Even if you never meet those other you's, some physicists say they're out there.

The multiverse may be an artifact of a deeper reality that is comprehensible and unique   Scientific American - March 5, 2019
"The most incomprehensible thing about the universe is that it is comprehensible," Albert Einstein famously once said. These days, however, it is far from being a matter of consensus that the universe is comprehensible, or even that it is unique. Fundamental physics is facing a crisis, related to two popular concepts that are frequently invoked, summarized tellingly by the buzzwords 'multiverse' and 'uglyverse'. Multiverse proponents advocate the idea that there may exist innumerable other universes, some of them with totally different physics and numbers of spatial dimensions; and that you, I and everything else may exist in countless copies.

  Physics: Why there could be many identical copies of you   BBC - August 7, 2017
We ask one of the hardest questions in the Universe, is there another you out there and if so, can we find our cosmic twin?

Dopplegangers   Crystalinks

Evidence of a parallel universe? 'Cold Spot' in space suggests there are alternate worlds with their own versions of reality   Daily Mail - May 17, 2017
In the desolate darkness of space it is difficult to imagine we are anything but alone in the cosmos. But imagine for a moment that we are not alone, but in fact one of an infinite number of parallel universes that contain infinite versions of ourselves. In one universe you might be president of the United States, while in another you could be made of gelatin. This is the theory of the 'multiverse', and a new study has found that a mysterious 'Cold Spot' in space could prove our universe is merely one of an everlasting string of realities.

Strange behavior of quantum particles may indicate the existence of other parallel universes   PhysOrg - June 6, 2015
Quantum mechanics is a strange realm of reality. Particles at this atomic and subatomic level can appear to be in two places at once. Because the activity of these particles is so iffy, scientists can only describe what's happening mathematically by "drawing" the tiny landscape as a wave of probability.

Scientists propose existence and interaction of parallel worlds: Many Interacting Worlds theory challenges foundations of quantum science   Science Daily - October 30, 2014
Academics are challenging the foundations of quantum science with a radical new theory on parallel universes. Scientists now propose that parallel universes really exist, and that they interact. They show that such an interaction could explain everything that is bizarre about quantum mechanics.

Is the universe a bubble? Let's check   PhysOrg - July 18, 2014

Never mind the big bang; in the beginning was the vacuum. The vacuum simmered with energy (variously called dark energy, vacuum energy, the inflation field, or the Higgs field). Like water in a pot, this high energy began to evaporate - bubbles formed. Each bubble contained another vacuum, whose energy was lower, but still not nothing. This energy drove the bubbles to expand. Inevitably, some bubbles bumped into each other. It's possible some produced secondary bubbles. Maybe the bubbles were rare and far apart; maybe they were packed close as foam. But here's the thing: each of these bubbles was a universe. In this picture, our universe is one bubble in a frothy sea of bubble universes. That's the multiverse hypothesis in a bubbly nutshell.

How Would Humans Know If They Lived in a Multiverse?   Live Science - June 4, 2014
Spotting a multiverse ...
Is free will dead?
Some theories in physics give rise to the idea of multiple universes, where nearly identical versions of the known universe exist. But if such a multiverse does exist, how would people know, and what would it mean for humanity? There may be ways to find out if the known universe is one of many, said Brian Greene, a theoretical physicist and author at Columbia University in New York.

That Signal From the Beginning of Time Could Redefine Our Universe   Wired - March 18, 2014
The physics world was on fire yesterday after an announcement that astronomers had detected a signal from the beginning of time. This is exactly as cool as it sounds. Maybe even cooler. And it might lead to us learning further crazy things about our universe. Besides coming as a shock to most of the community, the discovery once again proved that we don't quite know many things about our universe. Ordinarily sober-minded scientists went to hyperbolic lengths to describe just how significant the results were. Depending on who you ask, they were as important as finding the Higgs boson, directly detecting dark matter, or discovering life on other planets. Nobel Prizes are already being discussed.

Cosmic Microwave Map Swirls Indicate Inflation   NASA - March 17, 2014
Did the universe undergo an early epoch of extremely rapid expansion? Such an inflationary epoch has been postulated to explain several puzzling cosmic attributes such as why our universe looks similar in opposite directions. Yesterday, results were released showing an expected signal of unexpected strength, bolstering a prediction of inflation that specific patterns of polarization should exist in cosmic microwave background radiation -- light emitted 13.8 billion years ago as the universe first became transparent. Called B-mode polarizations, these early swirling patterns can be directly attributed to squeeze and stretch effects that gravitational radiation has on photon-emitting electrons. The surprising results were discovered in data from the Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization 2 (BICEP2) microwave observatory near the South Pole. BICEP2 is the building-mounted dish pictured above on the left. Note how the black polarization vectors appear to swirl around the colored temperature peaks on the inset microwave sky map. Although statistically compelling, the conclusions will likely remain controversial while confirmation attempts are made with independent observations.

Cosmic inflation: Spectacular discovery hailed   BBC - March 17, 2014
Scientists say they have extraordinary new evidence to support a Big Bang Theory for the origin of the Universe. Researchers believe they have found the signal left in the sky by the super-rapid expansion of space that must have occurred just fractions of a second after everything came into being. It takes the form of a distinctive twist in the oldest light detectable with telescopes. The breakthrough was announced by an American team working on a project known as BICEP2.

Our Universe May Exist in a Multiverse, Cosmic Inflation Discovery Suggests   Live Science - March 18, 2014

Big Bang Discovery Opens Doors to the "Multiverse"   National Geographic - March 19, 2014
This illustration depicts a main membrane out of which individual universes arise; they then expand in size through time.

The Holographic Universe