2018 Nobel Prizes and Articles

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The Nobel Prize in Economics has been awarded to Americans William Nordhaus and Paul Romer for their contributions to understanding how economies can grow sustainably. Nordhaus, a professor at Yale University, is best known for his work on climate economics. Romer, who works at New York University, is a proponent of a theory that examines how the world can achieve sustainable growth.

Nobel Peace Prize for anti-rape activists Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege   BBC - October 5, 2018

The 2018 Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded to campaigners against rape in warfare Nadia Murad and Denis Mukwege. Ms Murad is an Iraqi Yazidi who was tortured and raped by Islamic State militants and later became the face of a campaign to free the Yazidi people. Dr Mukwege is a Congolese gynaecologist who, along with his colleagues, has treated tens of thousands of victims. Some 331 individuals and organisations were nominated for the prestigious peace award this year. The winners announced in the Norwegian capital Oslo on Friday won the award for their "efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war", Berit Reiss-Andersen, the Nobel committee chair, said.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded for pioneering work in evolutionary science  
CNN - October 3, 2018

2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to three scientists for their discoveries in enzyme research  
BBC - October 3, 2018

Americans Frances Arnold and George P Smith will share the prize with Briton Gregory Winter, who is based at Cambridge University. This year's winners used a technique called directed evolution to create new proteins. These have been used in areas as diverse as the manufacture of new drugs and green fuels. Frances Arnold, from Caltech in Pasadena, was first to use a method mimicking natural selection in order to develop enzymes that would perform specific tasks. Enzymes are biological catalysts - which speed up chemical reactions in biological cells. Prof Arnold's directed evolution techniques are now routinely used to develop new enzymes.

"Optical Tweezers" and Tools Used for Laser Eye Surgery Snag Physics Nobel   Scientific American - October 2, 2018
Optical physicists Arthur Ashkin, Gerard Mourou and Donna Strickland have won this year's Nobel Prize in Physics for groundbreaking inventions in the field of laser physics. Half of this year's nine-million-kronor (about $1-million) prize goes to American physicist Arthur Ashkin for his invention of 'optical tweezers,' lasers that can probe the machinery of life without causing damage. The other half will be split jointly between French physicist Gerard Mourou and Canadian physicist Donna Strickland for their development of 'chirped pulse amplification' (CPA) - a method for making ultrashort, high-intensity laser pulses now routinely used in corrective eye surgery and precision machining. Strickland is the first female physics laureate in 55 years, and only the third in the prize's long, venerable history. The new laureates will receive their prizes in December at a ceremony in Stockholm.

Laser breakthroughs win physics Nobel   BBC - October 2, 2018
The 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded to a woman for the first time in 55 years. Donna Strickland, from Canada, is only the third woman winner of the award, along with Marie Curie, who won in 1903, and Maria Goeppoert-Mayer, who was awarded the prize in 1963. Dr Strickland shares this year's prize with Arthur Ashkin, from the US, and Gerard Mourou, from France. It recognises their discoveries in the field of laser physics. Dr Ashkin developed a laser technique described as optical tweezers, which is used to study biological systems. Drs Mourou and Strickland came up with a way of generating high intensity and very short laser pulses, which have a variety of applications. One of these is in laser eye surgery. The award is worth a total of nine million Swedish kronor (£770,686; $998,618).

Tasuku Honjo and James Allison win Nobel Prize in Medicine  
CNN - October 1, 2018
Helping the Immune System Fight Cancer