Science and Technology


The Sumerians are perhaps remembered most for their many inventions. Many authorities credit them with the invention of the wheel and the potter's wheel. Their cuneiform writing system was the first we have evidence of (with the possible exception of the highly controversial Old European Script), pre-dating Egyptian hieroglyphics by at least seventy five years.

They were among the first formal astronomers.

They came up with the concept of dividing the hour into 60 minutes and the minute into 60 seconds.

They may have invented military formations.

The Sumerians ushered in the age of intensive agriculturalism in Ancient Mesopotamia. Einkorn and Emmer wheat, barley, sheep (starting as mouflon) and cattle (starting as aurochs) were foremost among the species cultivated and raised for the first time on a grand scale. These inventions and innovations easily place the Sumerians among the most creative cultures in human pre-history and history. Sumerian scientific achievements were important to the modern world.




The Sumerians had three main types of boats:




Other examples of Sumerian technology include





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