Antarctica



Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,200,000 square kilometres (5,500,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent and nearly twice the size of Australia. At 0.00008 people per square kilometre, it is by far the least densely populated continent. About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km (1.2 mi; 6,200 ft) in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula. Read more




Pseudoscience


The truth about reality and planet Earth is buried beneath Antarctica which is rapidly melting down to reveal secrets linked to human creation and destiny. From alien underground bases to the answers to questions asked throughout eternity - it is not Atlantis that will rise it is Antarctica. Each week we are presented with information about Antarctica's fast melting glaciers. As in most places around the world, UFOs and strange lights have been seen over Antarctica. Some people associate UFOs with Nazi Germany experiments in underground facilities. There is no verified physical evidence of this.








Are strange space signals in Antarctica evidence of a parallel universe?   Astronomy.com - December 20, 2020
Last spring, a report from the world's largest neutrino telescope - a sprawling grid of detectors woven into Antarctica's ice - coincided with a blaze of hyperbolic headlines. They teased the possibility of an anti-universe where, from our point of view, time runs backward and the Big Bang represents an end, not a beginning. While it's too soon to start searching for our reverse-aging, other-handed doppelgangers, physicists are still wrestling with strange signals coming in from space that, to date, have defied easy explanation.

At the heart of this mystery are neutrinos: ghostly, high-energy particles that can stream through almost any material unscathed but can produce the telltale radio pulses that ANITA catches. To further investigate the unusual signals, physicists turned to IceCube, a neutrino telescope made up of long strings of detectors buried near the South Pole. A neutrino passing through the ice may produce other particles that emit tiny flashes of light that IceCube's sensors can detect.

Scientists reasoned that ANITA's anomalies should also have produced signals in IceCube, and those signals could reveal the deep-space source of the particles. But after eight years' worth of data was searched, the mystery remained: The exhaustive analysis turned up no matches.





Mysterious Particles Found in Antarctica Came From a Supermassive Black Hole   Mysterious Universe - July 4, 2020

Remember the stories just a few months ago about NASA allegedly finding a parallel universe over Antarctica where time appears to run backwards? Those stories originated with a frustrating fact that has baffled scientists at a loss for an answer - what are the strange subatomic particles known as neutrinos doing in Antarctica and where did they come from? As we suspected in reporting that seemingly unbelievable story, it wasn't from a reverse parallel universe. However, the real place it appears they may have originated from is just as unbelievable - a supermassive black hole.










TV Series - Stargate SG1

Antarctica was The Lost City tied in with Atlantean Mythology and a Portal to another Galaxy.




In the News ...





An enormous Antarctic iceberg A68 whose journeys were probably the most well-documented in history has now melted away to nothing in the Atlantic ocean   Science Alert - April 21, 2021
A68 cracked off the Larsen C ice sheet on the Antarctic Peninsula in 2017 as one of the biggest icebergs ever. At the time, it measured 2,240 square miles (5,800 square kilometers), about the size of the state of Delaware. In the time since, the berg has been buffeted about the South Atlantic, curving up toward South Georgia Island. There, warm temperatures and waves broke it into large chunks. Those chunks have since fragmented into pieces too small to track. The U.S. National Ice Center tracks icebergs that are at least 10 nautical miles (18.5 kilometers) in length or that have an area of at least 20 square nautical miles (68.5 sq km). The largest piece of Larsen C no longer qualifies as of April 16, according to the Center's database: It measured only 3 nautical miles by 2 nautical miles (5.5 km by 3.7 km).




Evidence of Antarctic glacier's tipping point confirmed for first time   PhysOrg - April 2, 2021
Researchers have confirmed for the first time that Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica could cross tipping points, leading to a rapid and irreversible retreat which would have significant consequences for global sea level. A68 cracked off the Larsen C ice sheet on the Antarctic Peninsula in 2017 as one of the biggest icebergs ever. At the time, it measured 2,240 square miles (5,800 square kilometers), about the size of the state of Delaware.




Particles of a Meteor Explosion From 430,000 Years Ago Found Hidden in Antarctic Ice   Science Alert - March 31, 2021
Roughly 430,000 years ago, an incandescent ball of hot gas came barreling out of the sky and slammed into Antarctica - and now, scientists have found tiny bits of debris formed by that impact.




Scientists uncover Antarctic sea creatures 'trapped under ice' for 50 years   Live Science - March 19, 2021
The first images from the seafloor reveal an amazing level of biodiversity in a region that was covered by thick ice for decades. Somehow, nutrients - either in the form of phytoplankton or organic particles flushed to sea with the ice above - are being dragged thousands of feet below the ice shelves of Antarctica to feed the bottom-dwelling creatures there, according to the AWI researchers. To learn more about the region's ecosystem, the research team gathered sediment samples from the sea floor, which will help reveal the water's nutrient content.




Antarctic seafloor exposed after 50 years of ice cover   BBC - March 17, 2021
German scientists have inspected an area of seafloor newly exposed by the calving of mega-iceberg A74 and found it to be teeming with animals. Video cameras tracked abundant filter feeders thriving among the soft muds. It was a remarkable opportunity for the team as their ship, RV Polarstern, threaded the still narrow gap that exists between A74 and the Brunt Ice Shelf, which produced the giant berg.




ICESat-2 satellite reveals shape, depth of Antarctic ice shelf fractures   PhysOrg - March 5, 2021
When a block of ice the size of Houston, Texas, broke off from East Antarctica's Amery Ice Shelf in 2019, scientists had anticipated the calving event, but not exactly where it would happen. Now, satellite data can help scientists measure the depth and shape of ice shelf fractures to better predict when and where calving events will occur, according to researchers.




Watch this giant iceberg break off from Antarctica   Space.com - March 3, 2021
New radar images captured from space reveal a giant iceberg breaking off in Antarctica.




Brunt Ice Shelf: Big iceberg calves near UK Antarctic base   BBC - February 26, 2021
A big iceberg approaching the size of Greater London has broken away from the Antarctic, close to Britain's Halley research station. Surface instruments on the Brunt Ice Shelf confirmed the split early on Friday. There is currently no-one in the base, so there is no risk to human life. The British Antarctic Survey has been operating Halley in a reduced role since 2017 because of the imminent prospect of a calving. The berg has been measured to cover 1,270 sq km. Halley is positioned just over 20km from the line of rupture. BAS has an array of GPS devices on the Brunt. These relay information about ice movements back to the agency's HQ in Cambridge.




Scientists find unexpected animal life far beneath Antarcticas floating ice shelves. The discovery of what appear to be sponges in the pitch-black seawater beneath almost half a mile of ice has biologists baffled   NBC - February 15, 2021

Strange creatures accidentally discovered beneath Antarctica's ice shelves   Eureka Alert - February 15, 2021

Mystery Lifeforms Have Been Found in The Hostile Darkness Beneath Antarctica   Science Alert - February 15, 2021




Antarctic lava yields clues to Earth's past magnetic field   PhysOrg - February 4, 2021
The movement of molten metals in Earth's outer core generates a vast magnetic field that protects the planet from potentially harmful space weather. Throughout Earth's history, the structure of the magnetic field has fluctuated. However, data suggest that averaged over sufficient time, the field may be accurately approximated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) field - the magnetic field that would result from a bar magnet centered within Earth and aligned along its axis of rotation.




Antarctica Is Melting in a Way Our Climate Models Never Predicted, Scientists Say   Science Alert - February 4, 2021
The Antarctic ice sheet is not melting in the linear way our climate models predicted it would. Instead, a more detailed model shows that while the rate of ice loss in the South Pole is rapidly accelerating, there are bumps of snowfall and brief reprieves from melt along the way.




There is much to discover as the ice melts
Martian mineral, rare on Earth, found locked in Antarctic ice   Live Science - January 27, 2021
The yellow-brown mineral, called jarosite, requires both water and acidic conditions to form, according to NASA - conditions that are hard to find now on the Red Planet. Nonetheless, after the Opportunity rover first discovered jarosite on Mars in 2004, the mineral turned up in several Martian locations, leaving scientists to wonder how the mineral became so common


A Mineral That Keeps Showing Up on Mars Has Been Found Deep in The Antarctic Ice   Science Alert - February 1, 2021




Chileans receive mistaken tsunami warning following 7.1 Antarctic quake   PhysOrg - January 24, 2021
An unrelated 5.8-magnitude earthquake meanwhile struck near Santiago at 9:07 pm, which was felt in resorts along the central and northern Pacific coast, where tourists were enjoying the country's summer season.




Are strange space signals in Antarctica evidence of a parallel universe?   Astronomy.com - December 20, 2020
Last spring, a report from the world's largest neutrino telescope - a sprawling grid of detectors woven into Antarctica's ice - coincided with a blaze of hyperbolic headlines. They teased the possibility of an anti-universe where, from our point of view, time runs backward and the Big Bang represents an end, not a beginning. While it's too soon to start searching for our reverse-aging, other-handed doppelgangers, physicists are still wrestling with strange signals coming in from space that, to date, have defied easy explanation.




Antarctica rocked by 30,000 tremors in 3 months, Chilean scientists say   Reuters - December 16, 2020
More than 30,000 tremors have rocked Antarctica since the end of August, according to the University of Chile, a spike in seismic activity that has intrigued researchers who study the remote, snowbound continent. Scientists with the university's National Seismological Center said the small quakes - including one stronger shake of magnitude 6- were detected in the Bransfield Strait, a 60-mile wide (96-km) ocean channel between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. Several tectonic plates and microplates meet near the strait, leading to frequent rumbling, but the past three months have been unusual, according to the center.




Half of Antarctic ice shelves could collapse in a flash, thanks to warming   Live Science - August 27, 2020

Antarctic ice shelves can disappear astonishingly fast - sometimes in minutes or hours - as meltwater surges through cracks in their surface. And as the atmosphere warms, this phenomenon may become more commonplace; at least half of the ice shelves on the continent are vulnerable to this process.




Scientists discover the fastest-melting spot in East Antarctica   Live Science - August 26, 2020
Located hundreds of feet below the Shirase Glacier in East Antarctica, the trough appears to be funneling warm ocean water directly against the base of the glacier's ice shelf (known as the Shirase Glacier Tongue), which juts out into the nearby bay like a frosty peninsula. This pipeline of warm water is causing the tongue to melt from the bottom up at an alarming rate - the base of the Shirase Glacier Tongue is losing 22 to 52 feet of ice per year (7 to 16 meters) - potentially making it the fastest-melting region in East Antarctica.




New study shows retreat of East Antarctic ice sheet during previous warm periods   PhysOrg - July 22, 2020
Questions about the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet are a major source of uncertainty in estimates of how much sea level will rise as the Earth continues to warm. For decades, scientists thought the East Antarctic Ice Sheet had remained stable for millions of years, but recent studies have begun to cast doubt on this idea. Now, researchers at UC Santa Cruz have reported new evidence of substantial ice loss from East Antarctica during an interglacial warm period about 400,000 years ago.




Mysterious Particles Found in Antarctica Came From a Supermassive Black Hole   Mysterious Universe - July 4, 2020
Remember the stories just a few months ago about NASA allegedly finding a parallel universe over Antarctica where time appears to run backwards? Those stories originated with a frustrating fact that has baffled scientists at a loss for an answer - what are the strange subatomic particles known as neutrinos doing in Antarctica and where did they come from? As we suspected in reporting that seemingly unbelievable story, it wasn't from a reverse parallel universe. However, the real place it appears they may have originated from is just as unbelievable - a supermassive black hole.




How a hidden ocean circulates beneath the Antarctic ice   Live Science - July 2, 2020

Jules Verne sent his fictional submarine, the Nautilus, to the South Pole through a hidden ocean beneath a thick ice cap. Written 40 years before any explorer had reached the pole, his story was nevertheless only half fiction.There are indeed hidden ocean cavities around Antarctica, and our latest research explores how the ocean circulates underneath the continent's ice shelves - large floating extensions of the ice on land that rise and fall with the tides.




South Pole warming three times faster than rest of Earth: study   PhysOrg - June 29, 2020
The South Pole has warmed three times faster than the rest of the planet in the last 30 years due to warmer tropical ocean temperatures Antarctica's temperature varies widely according to season and region, and for years it had been thought that the South Pole had stayed cool even as the continent heated up. Researchers in New Zealand, Britain and the United States analyzed 60 years of weather station data and used computer modeling to show what was causing the accelerated warming. They found that warmer ocean temperatures in the western Pacific had over the decades lowered atmospheric pressure over the Weddell Sea in the southern Atlantic. This in turn had increased the flow of warm air directly over the South Pole - warming it by more than 1.83C (about 3.3F) since 1989..




Remains of 90 million-year-old rainforest discovered under Antarctic ice   Live Science - April 2, 2020

About 90 million years ago, West Antarctica was home to a thriving temperate rainforest, according to fossil roots, pollen and spores recently discovered there, a new study finds. The world was a different place back then. During the middle of the Cretaceous period (145 million to 65 million years ago), dinosaurs roamed Earth and sea levels were 558 feet (170 meters) higher than they are today. Sea-surface temperatures in the tropics were as hot as 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius).




Traces of ancient rainforest in Antarctica point to a warmer prehistoric world   PhysOrg - April 2, 2020
Researchers have found evidence of rainforests near the South Pole 90 million years ago, suggesting the climate was exceptionally warm at the time.




Antarctica's Denman Glacier is sinking into the world's deepest canyon   Live Science - April 1, 2020
The glaciers of Antarctica are melting at unprecedented rates, and a giant canyon in the continent's rocky underbelly could make matters much worse.




Spooky 'blood snow' invades Antarctic island   Live Science - February 26, 2020
It's summer in Antarctica, which means record-high temperatures, jarring glacial melt and - in a very metal symbol of our changing climate - a bit of blood-red snow spattered across the Antarctic Peninsula. Over the past several weeks, the ice around Ukraine's Vernadsky Research Base (located on Galindez Island, off the coast of Antarctica's northernmost peninsula) has been coated in what researchers are calling "raspberry snow." A Facebook post by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine shows the scene in full detail: streaks of red and pink slashing across the edges of glaciers and puddling on the frosty plains.




As Glaciers Melt, a New Island Popped Up in Antarctica   Smithsonian - February 26, 2020
High temperatures in Antarctica earlier this month have caused ice caps to melt to an unprecedented degree. As the glaciers retreat, they release pressure on the continent, allowing the ground itself to rise up. Sometimes, this effect stabilizes the ice by anchoring it in place, but rebounding ground could accelerate the glacial breakup by causing more cracks. When the latter happens and a glacier quickly sheds ice as the ground rises up, the land underneath maybe start to appear. Such is the story of how a never-before-seen island emerged off the coast of Antarctica recently.




Surprisingly warm water found on underside of Antarctica's 'Doomsday Glacier'   Live Science - January 30, 2020
An underwater robot named Icefin that has gone where no submersible has gone before - to the underbelly of Antarctica's "Doomsday Glacier" - has uncovered unusually warm temperatures there. The hunk of ice, officially known as the Thwaites Glacier, earned its ominous nickname because it is one of Antarctica's fastest melting glaciers. Even so, scientists were surprised to learn that waters at the ground line, the region where the glacier meets the sea, are more than 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius) above the normal freezing temperature, according to news reports.



Scientists find record warm water in Antarctica, pointing to cause behind troubling glacier melt   PhysOrg - January 30, 2020
A team of scientists has observed, for the first time, the presence of warm water at a vital point underneath a glacier in Antarctica - an alarming discovery that points to the cause behind the gradual melting of this ice shelf while also raising concerns about sea-level rise around the globe.




Mysterious particles spewing from Antarctica defy physics   Live Science - January 24, 2020
Our best model of particle physics is bursting at the seams as it struggles to contain all the weirdness in the universe. Now, it seems more likely than ever that it might pop, thanks to a series of strange events in Antarctica. The death of this reigning physics paradigm, the Standard Model, has been predicted for decades. There are hints of its problems in the physics we already have. Strange results from laboratory experiments suggest flickers of ghostly new species of neutrinos beyond the three described in the Standard Model. And the universe seems full of dark matter that no particle in the Standard Model can explain.




Scientists Found the Deepest Land on Earth Hiding Beneath Antarctica's Ice   Live Science - December 13, 2019
A new map of the mountains, valleys and canyons hidden under Antarctica's ice has revealed the deepest land on Earth, and will help forecast future ice loss. The frozen southern continent can look pretty flat and featureless from above. But beneath the ice pack that's accumulated over the eons, there's an ancient continent, as textured as any other. And that texture turns out to be very important for predicting how and when ice will flow and which regions of ice are most vulnerable in a warming world. The new NASA map, called BedMachine Antarctica, mixes ice movement measurements, seismic measurements, radar and other data points to create the most detailed picture yet of Antarctica's hidden features.




This Antarctic Meteorite Holds a Tiny Speck of Stardust That's Older Than the Solar System   Live Science - April 30, 2019
A tiny speck of stardust, hidden within a meteorite from Antarctica, is likely older than our sun - and was catapulted into our celestial neighborhood by an ancient star explosion that predates the formation of our solar system. This ancient grain is only 1/25,000 of an inch, sports a "croissant-like shape," and could tell us a thing or two about the origins of our solar system




Uncovering Polynya - a body of unfrozen ocean that appeared within a thick body of ice during Antarctica's winter almost two years ago - Research unravels 43-year-old mystery in Antarctica   PhysOrg - April 24, 2019
The Maud-Rise Polynya was spotted in mid September 2017 in the center of an ice pack in Antarctica's Lazarev Sea, causing researchers to question how this phenomenon occurred during Antarctica's coldest, winter months when ice is at its thickest. Due to its difficult access location, NYUAD scientists used a combination of satellite observations and reanalysis data to discover that cyclones (as intense as category 11 in the Beaufort Scale) and the strong winds that they carry over the ice pack cause ice to shift in opposite directions, which leads to the opening of the Polynya.




Antarctica's Bizarre Green Icebergs Are More Than a Quirk of the Southern Ocean   Live Science - March 9, 2019
Scientists think they might know why some Antarctic icebergs are green. The reason could be iron oxide dust ground down by glaciers on the Antarctic mainland. If the theory holds, it means that the green 'bergs are more than just a quirk of the Southern Ocean. In fact, they might be crucial to the movement of ocean nutrients.




Scientists Pin Down Cause of Mysterious 'Icequakes' Shaking Antarctica   Live Science - March 5, 2019
For part of the summer in parts of Antarctica, the ice melts into a swampy, slushy stew and refreezes as the temperatures rise and fall. As it melts, it generates hundreds of thousands of tiny little "icequakes."




Human 'footprint' on Antarctica measured for first time   PhysOrg - March 4, 2019
Buildings alone cover more than 390 000 square metres of land while the visual footprint - the areas from which human activity can be seen - extends to more than 93,000 square kilometres.




Before There Were Dinosaurs, Triassic 'Lizard King' Ruled Antarctica   Live Science - January 31, 2019
Millions of years before the ground trembled under the footfalls of T. rex - the so-called "king of the dinosaurs" - a forested Antarctica was home to an iguana-size "lizard king." This ancient reptile was an archosaur - part of the same group that would later include dinosaurs, pterosaurs and crocodilians. Scientists recently discovered a partial skeleton of the lizard dating to 250 million years ago, a time when Antarctica was bursting with plant and animal life. Not only does the fossil of this former "king" provide a sharper picture of the forest landscape in long-ago Antarctica, it also helps to explain the evolutionary landscape following the biggest mass extinction in Earth's history, scientists reported in a new study.




Antarctica is losing 6 times more ice a year than it was in the 1970s and experts predict climate change will cause 'multi-meter sea level rise' in the next few centuries   Daily Mail - January 14, 2019

Antarctica is shedding ice at a staggering rate. Scientists have discovered global warming has caused the melting of the ice on the continent to increase sixfold since 1979. This phenomenal rate of melting has seen global sea levels rise by more than half an inch - and experts predict it will get worse. Scientists have predicted a 'multi-meter sea level rise from Antarctica in the coming centuries' as a result of the vast loss of ice.




Ancient Antarctic ice sheet collapse could happen again, triggering a new global flood   PhysOrg - December 25, 2018
t's happened before, and it could happen again. Tens of thousands of years ago, a giant ice sheet in Antarctic melted, raising sea levels by up to 30 feet around the world. This inundated huge swaths of what had been dry land. Scientists think it could happen again as the world heats up because of man-made global warming, new research suggests. Such a collapse would again cause seas to rise dramatically, which would lead to a global flood.




Antarctic Island Exploded 4,000 Years Ago   Live Science - November 29, 2018
Horseshoe-shaped Deception Island in Antarctica has finally revealed one of its most closely held secrets - when it exploded. The island, an active volcano, got its unusual shape during a long-ago eruption that ejected massive amounts of rock and magma to form a bowl-shaped depression called a caldera. Now, researchers know that the massive eruption happened around 4,050 years ago. This information will help volcanologists understand the volcano bette. The findings will also help scientists like Antoniades, who studies ancient climate, figure out how Deception Island's eruption affected Antarctica's climate.


Deceptive and Dangerous: A Gallery of An Antarctic Volcano   Live Science - November 29, 2018
The watery caldera of Deception Island, Antarctia, formed when the island (an active volcano) erupted. Now, for the first time, scientists have a good estimate of when this caldera-forming eruption occurred.




Beneath Antarctica's Ice, Intriguing Evidence of Lost Continents   Live Science - November 13, 2018
A new map reveals the remnants of ancient continents that lurk beneath Antarctica's ice. The map shows that East Antarctica is made up of multiple cratons, which are the cores of continents that came before. This observation leads back to the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana and the link of Antarctica to the surrounding continents




Huge Lakes Thought to Be Hiding Beneath Antarctica's Ice Seem to Have Vanished   Live Science - November 10, 2018
An icy mystery brewing under Recovery Glacier in Antarctica has scientists scratching their heads. Where researchers once thought there was a network of under-ice lakes, there now seem to be none. Antarctic researchers have long believed that large lakes lie hidden beneath the glacier in East Antarctica, trapped between the base of the ice and the bedrock of the Antarctic continent. A new study, though, failed to find any evidence of such large bodies of water.




NASA spots massive new iceberg three times the size of Manhattan in Antarctica   Daily Mail - November 9, 2018
A close-up view of the rift separating Pine Island Glacier and iceberg B-46, as seen on an Operation IceBridge flight on November 7, 2018. Wednesday's flight plan took the IceBridge team over Pine Island Glacier as part of the long-running campaign to collect year-over-year measurements of sea ice, glaciers, and critical regions of Earth's ice sheets. The giant berg may not last long - NASA said 'satellite imagery and the IceBridge flight showed that the main iceberg is already beginning to break up.




Relics of 'lost continents' hidden under Antarctica are revealed by satellite images after scientists track 200 million years of tectonic plate shifts   Daily Mail - November 9, 2018
Satellite images reveal a timeline of the ancient landmasses buried a mile (1.6 km) beneath the icy continent. Scientists said the snaps shed new light on Antarctica, the 'least understood continent on Earth'. They used data from the long-dead Gravity field and Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), which plummeted into Earth after it ran out of fuel in 2013.




An Antarctic ice shelf is singing, and it sounds like an eerie sci-fi soundtrack   NBC - October 18, 2018
One of the world's biggest slabs of ice is singing. Wind blowing over the rough surface of Antarctica's Ross Ice Shelf causes the frigid, France-sized expanse to produce a nearly continuous series of tones, according to research published Tuesday in the journal Geophysical Research Letters. The tones are too low to be heard by humans, but sped-up renditions have been likened to everything from the haunting drone of a didgeridoo to the soundtrack of a 1950s movie about space aliens.




Antarctica as you've never seen it before: Scientists release the most accurate, high-resolution terrain map ever created   Daily Mail - September 7, 2018
The new map shows a much better look at the icy continent's surface features, with a crisp resolution of 2 to 8 meters compared to the previous standard of 1,000 meters. The massive 150 terabyte file will provide much more precise information for scientists planning to explore the region.




Volcano under ice sheet suggests thickening of West Antarctic ice is short-term   PhysOrg - September 6, 2018
A region of West Antarctica is behaving differently from most of the continent's ice: A large patch of ice there is thickening, unlike other parts of West Antarctica that are losing ice. Whether this thickening trend will continue affects the overall amount that melting or collapsing glaciers could raise the level of the world's oceans.




Researchers discover volcanic heat source under major Antarctic glacier   PhysOrg - June 25, 2018
A researcher from the University of Rhode Island's Graduate School of Oceanography and five other scientists have discovered an active volcanic heat source beneath the Pine Island Glacier in Antarctica. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet lies atop a major volcanic rift system, but there had been no evidence of current magmatic activity




Giant canyons discovered in Antarctica   BBC - May 24, 2018
The biggest of the canyons is called Foundation Trough. It is over 350km long and 35km wide. To put that on a more recognizable scale - think of a deeply incised valley running between London and Manchester. The two other troughs are equally vast. The Patuxent Trough is more than 300km long and over 15km wide, while the Offset Rift Basin is 150km long and 30km wide. And all of this relief is buried under many hundreds of metres of ice. To get to the floor of Foundation Trough, for example, you would need to drill through over 2km of ice cover. The three troughs together lie under and cross the so-called "ice divide" - the high ice ridge that runs from the South Pole out towards the coast of West Antarctica. This divide can be thought of as a kind of watershed. Ice flows away on either side, through the channels - towards the Weddell Sea in the east and the Ross Sea in the west.




Antarctica's: Scientists Rush to Explore Underwater World Hidden for 120,000 Years Below Ice   Live Science - February 12, 2018
A huge, trillion-ton iceberg about the size of Delaware broke free from Antarctica's Larsen C Ice Shelf in July 2017. As it moved away from its chilly birth mom and into the Weddell Sea, a vast expanse of water saw the light for the first time in up to 120,000 years. And this month, a team of scientists will venture to the long-ice-buried expanse to investigate the mysterious ecosystem that was hidden beneath the Antarctic ice shelf for so long. The newly exposed seabed stretches across an area of about 2,246 square miles (5,818 square kilometers), according to the British Antarctic Survey (BAS), which is leading the expedition. The scientists consider their journey "urgent," as they hope to document the system before sunlight begins to change at least the surface layers.




Antarctica's Larsen C Iceberg Will Tower 600 Feet Over the Ocean   Live Science - February 12, 2018
It hasn't calved yet, but scientists already have a pretty good idea of what the iceberg splitting from Antarctica's Larsen C ice shelf will look like. Using satellite measurements from the European Space Agency (ESA), researchers have found that the new 'berg will tower 623 feet (190 meters) high over the ocean's surface and contain 277 cubic miles (1,155 cubic kilometers) of ice. The surface area of the ice threatening to break off is around 2,548 square miles (6,600 square km)




Life in Lake Vostok? The link between Antarctica and extra-terrestrials   The Conversation - February 13, 2012
Late last week the Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) announced they had successfully drilled into the elusive sub-glacial Lake Vostok, a body of water lying under nearly 4km of Antarctic ice. The breakthrough is the result of 20 years of drilling at one of the most inhospitable places on Earth. Much of the interest in the 15,000 square-kilometre Lake Vostok revolves around the fact any micro-organisms within it have been isolated for anywhere up to 30 million years, trapped in an environment similar to that of the moons of Jupiter. So what does a sub-glacial lake in Antarctica have in common with the alien moons of Jupiter? And what's the significance of the Lake Vostok exploration when we consider the search for extra-terrestrial life?




Exploration and History

Belief in the existence of a Terra Australis - a vast continent located in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and north Africa - had existed since Ptolemy suggested the idea in order to preserve symmetry of landmass in the world. Depictions of a large southern landmass were common in maps such as the early 16th century Turkish Piri Reis map.

Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of "Antarctica," geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. However, as Antarctica has no indigenous population, it was mostly unexplored until the 19th century.

European maps continued to show this land until Captain James Cook's ships, Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on January 17, 1773 and again in 1774.

The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by two individuals. According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, and other sources, ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica in 1820: Fabian von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the British Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut).

Von Bellingshausen supposedly saw Antarctica on January 27, 1820, three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the expedition led by Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev on two ships reached a point within 32 km (20 miles) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there.

In 1841, explorer James Clark Ross sailed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island. He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf. Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and HMS Terror.

During an expedition led by Ernest Shackleton, parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole.

On December 14, 1911, a party led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the South Pole, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier. This area previously colonized by the famous "Claus Expedition".

Richard Evelyn Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. He is credited with implementing mechanized land transport and conducting extensive geological and biological research.

However, it was not until October 31, 1956 that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there.





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