Earth Changes


It's all changing and there's no going back as the cycles of time evolve out of existence.




Earthquakes



2015 Nepal earthquake   Wikipedia

The 2015 Nepal 7.8 earthquake (also referred to as the Himalayan earthquake) occurred at 11:56 NST on April 25, 2015. Its epicenter was approximately 34 km (21 mi) east-southeast of Lamjung, Nepal, and its hypocenter was at a depth of approximately 15 km (9.3 mi). It is the most powerful disaster to strike Nepal since the 1934 Nepal–Bihar earthquake. As of 27 April, more than 3,700 people are believed to have died as a result, with casualties reported in Nepal and adjoining areas of India, China, and Bangladesh.

The earthquake triggered an avalanche on Mount Everest, killing at least 17. The death toll surpassed that of the 2014 Mount Everest avalanche, making it the most lethal day on the mountain. Centuries-old buildings were destroyed at UNESCO World Heritage sites in the Kathmandu Valley, including some at the Kathmandu Durbar Square. Continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal, with one shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at 12:54:08 NST.

Buildings in the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Kathmandu Durbar Square collapsed, as did the Dharahara tower, built in 1832, killing at least 180 people, and Manakamana Temple located in Gorkha. The northern side of Janaki Mandir has been reported to be damaged. Several temples, including Kasthamandap, Panchtale temple, the nine-storey Basantapur Durbar, the Dasa Avtar temple, Krishna Mandir and two dewals located behind the Shiva Parvati temple, were demolished by the quake. A few other monuments, including the Kumari Temple and the Taleju Bhawani, among others, have partially collapsed. The top of the Jay Bageshwori Temple in Gaushala and some parts of the Pashupatinath Temple, Swyambhunath, Boudhanath Stupa, Ratna Mandir, inside Rani Pokhari, and Durbar High School have been destroyed.


Nepal quake 'followed historic pattern'   BBC - April 27, 2015
Nepal's devastating magnitude-7.8 earthquake on Saturday was primed over 80 years ago by its last massive earthquake in 1934, which razed around a quarter of Kathmandu to the ground and killed over 17,000 people. This latest quake follows the same pattern as a duo of big tremors that occurred over 700 years ago, and results from a domino effect of strain transferring along the fault, geologists say.


Bigger Earthquake Coming on Nepal's Terrifying Faults   Live Science - April 27, 2015
Nepal faces larger and more deadly earthquakes, even after the magnitude-7.8 temblor that killed more than 4,000 people on Saturday (April 25). Earthquake experts say Saturday's Nepal earthquake did not release all of the pent-up seismic pressure in the region near Kathmandu. According to GPS monitoring and geologic studies, some 33 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) of motion may need to be released, said Eric Kirby, a geologist at Oregon State University. The earth jumped by about 10 feet (3 m) during the devastating April 25 quake, the U.S. Geological Survey reported.




Three Idaho quakes rattle residents from Washington to Montana   PhysOrg - April 24, 2015
Three earthquakes up to magnitude-4.2 and nearly a half-dozen aftershocks jolted northern Idaho, with residents from Washington state to Montana saying they felt the tremors. othing was damaged in the house during the quake that she estimated lasted several minutes. A second quake of magnitude-4.2 struck a little more than three hours later, waking up Hadley and her dog. That quake was centered 38 miles northeast of Hayden. Then, a magnitude-3.3 temblor hit at 1:28 a.m. Friday in the same area. Also Friday, a magnitude-6.1 earthquake struck British Columbia's north coast, but a tsunami was not expected and no injuries or damage were reported. After the Idaho temblors, hundreds of people logged onto the Geological Survey's National Earthquake Information website to report feeling them.




Washington Earthquake's Mysterious Source Discovered   Live Science - April 23, 2015
Geologists have finally solved a 142-year-old earthquake mystery in central Washington state. Until now, no one knew the source of a powerful earthquake that rattled windows from Washington to Montana on Dec. 14, 1872. The quake's size, based on historical accounts, was magnitude 6.8. At the time, newspapers put the epicenter in several areas, from underneath the Puget Sound north to Vancouver, British Columbia. But Washington's eyewitness reports, slower to arrive in the sparsely populated state, centered the most intense damage east of the Cascades, near Wenatchee, where a giant landslide temporarily dammed the Columbia River.




Enhancing earthquake early warning in the Pacific Northwest   PhysOrg - April 23, 2015
Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems depend on speed and accuracy in delivering seismic monitoring data to areas at risk from a quake or volcanic eruption. Paul Bodin of the University of Washington and colleagues have been testing models of EEW systems within the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) in Washington State and Oregon to learn more about what factors could be improved to provide the most timely warnings for their region. For instance, what's priorities are important for getting a speedy warning to those at risk: the placement of seismic monitoring stations, or the number of stations, or the speed at which data can be transmitted between stations and notification centers?




Volcanoes


Lava Lake Threatens Overflow in Hawaii   Live Science - April 28, 2015
The roiling lava lake atop Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano is threatening to overflow for the first time since the molten pool appeared in February 2010. The lava lake usually hides out of tourists' sight by hovering about 100 feet (30 meters) below the rim of Overlook crater, which lies inside of the bigger Halemau'mau' crater at Kilauea's summit. The 720-foot wide (220 m) Overlook crater emerged with a stupendous blast on March 19, 2008. But last week, on April 22, lava started rising steadily and is now hovering within 10 feet (3 m) of the crater's edge. Lava briefly touched the crater rim this morning (April 28), according to the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.




Titanic Blob of Magma Found Beneath Yellowstone Supervolcano   Live Science - April 23, 2015
A giant blob-shaped reservoir of searing-hot rock has been discovered far below the supervolcano underneath Yellowstone National Park - one that could fill the Grand Canyon more than 11 times over, researchers say. The discovery doesn't raise the risk of future eruptions at Yellowstone, the study authors said. However, a better understanding of the Yellowstone supervolcano's plumbing could shed light on any hazards it might pose, scientists added. The newfound blob-shaped magma reservoir lies in the lower crust. The molten rock extends from about 12 to 28 miles (19 to 45 kilometers) deep, and measures about 30 miles (48 km) long northwest to southeast and 44 miles (70 km) long southwest to northeast. This magma reservoir is about 11,200 cubic miles (46,700 cubic km) in size. Video 1





Chile's Calbuco Volcano Disrupts International Travel Amid Ash, Smoke   WSJ - April 24, 2015
The eruption of a volcano in Chile's southern Andes disrupted international travel Friday as flights were canceled or delayed in three South American capital cities. American Airlines, Delta, and Chilean airline LAN canceled flights to Santiago from the U.S., while a number of other flights were delayed due to ash and smoke that traveled hundreds of miles north to the Chilean capital after being shot into the air by the Calbuco Volcano. The ash can affect visibility and also damage airplanes. In Argentina, American Airlines, United Airlines, Air France, Delta and Air Canada canceled international flights to Buenos Aires' Ezeiza airport, while airports in the towns of Bariloche, near Chile's southern border, and Neuquen were closed.


  Watch Stunning Time Lapse Video of Chile Volcano Eruption   NBC - April 23, 2015


  The epic volcano eruption that led to the 'Year Without a Summer'   Washington Post - April 25, 2015
On Wednesday evening, Chile’s Calbuco volcano erupted for the first time in over 40 years, hurling ash six miles into the sky. The explosions were so powerful that they sent waves rolling through the atmosphere above South America. While the Calbuco eruption was the largest in recent memory, scientists suspect it will not have a detectable impact on climate. But 200 years ago this month, a much larger volcanic eruption rocked the globe, and left the Earth with a Year Without a Summer.


  Chile Volcano Eruption: Inside a Ghost Town as Volcanic Ash Rains Down   ABC - April 24, 2015
An earthquake that created its own weather and more ...




Global Warming


High mountains warming faster than expected   PhysOrg - April 23, 2015
High elevation environments around the world may be warming much faster than previously thought, according to members of an international research team including Raymond Bradley, director of the Climate System Research Center at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. They call for more aggressive monitoring of temperature changes in mountain regions and more attention to the potential consequences of warming.





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